Douglas Armati, "Tools and standards for protection, control and presentation of data," 1996, ICSU Press.Print Publications
David Bearman, "Archiving and Authenticity," The Getty Art History Information Program: Research Agenda for Networked Cultural Heritage, 1995.
David Bearman and Ken Sochats, "Metadata Requirements for Evidence" from Metadata Specifications Derived from the Functional Requirements: A Reference Model for Business Acceptable Communications, 1995.
Stephen Chapman and Anne R. Kenney, "Digital Conversion of Research Library Materials," D-Lib Magazine, October 1996.
Paul Conway, "Preservation in the Digital World," January, 1998.
Michael Day, "Extending metadata for digital preservation," Ariadne: the Web Version, May 19 1997 issue 9.
Digital Library Federation Planning Task Force, "Final Report to the DLF Policy Board for discussion and planning purposes," June1996.
European Commission on Preservation and Access, "Digitization as a means of preservation?" October, 1997.
Maggie Exon, "Strategies for Long-Term Preservation," 1995
Mike Folk, "HDF as an Archive Format," (A part of the ISO Archiving Workshop Series), 1998
Peter Graham, "Intellectual Preservation: Electronic Preservation of the Third Kind," 1994.
Brian Green and Mark Bide, "Unique Identifiers: a brief introduction,"
Margaret Hedstrom, "Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries," 1995
Alan Heminger and Steven Robertson, "The Rosetta Stone Model," 1998, based on thesis.
Anne R. Kenney, "Conversion of traditional data formats into digital media," The Getty Art History Information Program: Research Agenda for Cultural Heritage on Information Needs, 1995.
Carl Lagoze, "The Warwick Framework: a container architecture for diverse sets of metadata," D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1996,
Carl Lagoze, Clifford Lynch, and Ron Daniel Jr. "The Warwick Framework:A Container Architecture for Aggregating Sets of Metadata," TR96-1593, June 21, 1996.
Bruce C. Lamartine, Roger A. Stutz, "Durable High-Density Data Storage,"
Dave MacCarn,"Toward a Universal Data Format for the Preservation Of Media."
MIL-STD-1840C, "Automated Interchange of Technical Information," June 26, 1997
Simon Pockley, "Killing the duck to keep the quack," April 2, 1997.
Research Library Group (RGL)Working Group on Preservation Issues of Metadata, Final Report, May, 1998 http://www.rlg.org/preserv/presmeta.html
Don Sawyer and Lou Reich, "Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System," White Book, Issue 4 (CCSDS 650.0-W-4.0), September 17, 1998
Thom Shepard, "Universal Preservation Format Update" D-Lib Magazine, November 1997.
Society of American Archivists, "Statement on the Preservation of Digitized Reproductions,"
Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information (Research Library Group & Commission on Preservation and Access), "Preserving Digital Information," May 1, 1996.
Donald Waters, "Archiving Digital Information: A presentation to the OCLC Research Library Directors' Conference, Dublin, Ohio, March 12, 1996."
Donald Waters, "What are Digital Libraries?"
CLIR Issues, No. 4, July/August 1998
Stuart Weibel and Juha Hakela, "DC-5: the Helsinki Metadata Workshop: a report on the workshop and subsequent developments: official report of the Helsinki DC Meeting." D-Lib Magazine, February 1998,
Brian K. Zuzga, "Tape Archiving Using the Time Capsule File System"
Andrew H. Bartlett, Homi Fatemi, and Marc H. Eberle, "Ultra high density data storage using charged particle technology," Data Storage Magazine, 1997.
Commission on Preservation and Access, "Magnetic tape storage and handling: a guide for libraries and archives," National Media Lab, June 1995.
Terry Cook, "It's 10 o'clock: do you know where your data are?" Technology Review, January 1995 v98 n1 p48(6).
Paul Conway, "Selecting microfilm for digital preservation: a case study from Project Open Book," Library Resources and Technical Services, January 1997 v40 n p67-83.
Samuel Demas and Jennie L. Brogdon, "Determining copyright status for preservation and access: defining reasonable effort," Library Resources and Technical Services, October 1997 v41 n4 p323-333.
Richard M. Dougherty, "Getting a Grip on Change," American Libraries, August 1997 p140-145.
Engineering Committee Report, "SMPTE Header/Descriptor Task Force: Final Report," SMPTE Journal, June 1992, p411-429.
Michael Ester, "Digital image collections: issues and practice," Commission on Preservation and Access, December 1996.
Samuel C. Florman, "From here to eternity," Technology Review, April 1997 v100 n3 p63(1).
Peter S. Graham, "Requirements for the Digital Research Library," College and University Research Libraries, July 1995 v56, No. 4: 331-39.
Margaret Hedstrom, "Electronic records research: what have archivists learned from mistakes of the past?" Archives and Museum Informatics, 1996 v10 n4 p313-325.
Jurgen Heitmann, "User requirements and technologies for automated storage and retrieval," SMPTE Journal, February 1998 p100-104.
Alan Howell, "Digital imaging technology for preservation and access: a Cornell University library workshop," LASIE, March 1996 v27 n1 p26-38.
Katharina Klemperer and Stephen Chapman, "Digital libraries: a selected resource guide," Information Technologies and Libraries, September 1997 v16 n3 p126-131.
Klaus-Dieter Lehman, "Making the transitory permanent: the intellectual heritage in a digitized world of knowledge," Daedalus, Fall 1996 v125 n4 p307(23).
Dave MacCarn, "Toward a universal data format for the preservation of media," SMPTE Journal, July 1997 v106 n7 p477-479.
Deanna B. Marcum, "The preservation of digital information," Journal of Academic Librarianship, November 1996 v22 n6 p451-454.
Cherrie Noble, "Reflecting on our future," Computers in Libraries, February 1998, v18 n2 p50-54.
Norman Paskin, "Information Identifiers," Learned Publishing, April 1997, v10 n2, p135-156.
Jeff Rothenberg, "Ensuring the longevity of digital documents," Scientific American, January 1995, v272 n1 p42-47.
Thom Shepard, "Introduction to the Universal Preservation Format Initiative," Archival Outlook, July/August 1998 p24.
Thom Shepard, "The Universal Preservation Format: Background and Fundamentals," Annotation, March 1998 p7-8.
Thom Shepard, "The Universal Preservation Format: A Standard Toward Preserving Information Integrity," Infinity, the Newsletter of the SAA Preservation Section, Spring/Summer 1998 v14 n1 p4.
Ulla de Stricker, "New information technologies," Computers in Libraries, February 1998 v18 n2 p61-65.
Maria Troy, "Video preservation: a report from the trenches," Afterimage, Sep-Oct 1996 v23 n2 p4(2)
Object Identification Standards
Bento Specification, Copyright (c) 1993, Apple Computer, Inc.
Bento Design Overview (HTML)
Open Media Framework Interchange Specification, Copyright (c) 1995 Avid Technology, Inc.
SMPTE/EBU Task Force for Harmonized Standards for the Exchange of Program Material as Bit Streams, Copyright (c) 1998 European Broadcasting Union and the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc.
Final report is available!
QuickTime 3.0 Technology Brief Whitepaper, Copyright (c) 1997 Apple.
Video Metadata Group (VMG): Metadata Dictionary.
Advanced Streaming Format, January 1998.
Advanced Authoring Format, April 1998.
For printed and electronic music copyright ISMNs are used, while individual recordings of music can be identified using the ISRC coding scheme.
Electronic information can be identified using the naming conventions defined in ISO 9070. Each of the standards listed above is administered by a Registration Authority that keeps master records of the owners of sets of records. Assignment of individual numbers within each set is normally the responsibility of the originating company.
The original version of ANSI/NISO Z39.56-1991 established two levels of coding, a unique code for the identification of a serial title called the Serial Item Identifier and a unique code for individual contributions within a serial - the Serial Contribution Identifier. The standard has recently been significantly revised to make it more suitable for electronic use, including in the EDI and Internet (Uniform Resource Names) environments. The main changes are the introduction of a Code Structure Identifier (CSI) for different uses, a Derivative Part Identifier (DPI) to identify fragments other than articles (e.g. tables of contents, index) and a Media Format Identifier (MFI) to indicate physical format.
Digital Object Identifiers identify any type of digital information. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a system for connecting "potential customers to the current owner of a digital object." Each DOI has two parts: an identifier, composed of a registrant's assigned prefix, and an item ID, which may be any existing object identification scheme, including ISBNs, SICI, BICI and PII identifiers.
DOI was designed to help manage "copyright ownership issues and to promote digital commerce and scholarly research."
AIF (Archiving Interchange Formats)
Recording format of information stored on optical disk.
EAD (Encoded Archival Description)
Encoding of archival finding aids using Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
Sponsored by Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress (LC) in partnership with the Society of American Archivists. EAD defines "principles and criteria for designing, developing, and maintaining an encoding scheme for archive and library finding aids." Materials described through EAD include textual and electronic documents, visual materials, and sound recordings.
EAD development was initiated by the University of California, Berkeley, Library in 1993.
Reference Model for Business Acceptable Communications
Functional Requirements for Evidence in Recordkeeping ("The Pittsburg Project")
This research project developed a set of "well-defined recordkeeping functional requirements -- satisfying all the various legal, administrative, and other needs of a particular organization -- which can be used in the design and implementation of electronic information systems."
The project investigated how "organizational policies, culture, and use of information technology standards, systems design, and implementation" affect the functions of recordkeeping. http://http://www.lis.pitt.edu/~nhprc/
TEI (Text Encoding Initiative)
Encoding scheme for complex textual structures, sponsored by the Association for Computers and the Humanities, Association for Computational Linguistics, and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing. This initiative attempts to provide a standard set of SGML tag definitions to represent all kinds of electronic information for the humanities. TEI documents include a header which identifies the work and source details, and includes "tag sets" for prose, poetry, drama, speech, dictionaries and terminological databases. Considered in academic communities, both national and international, as the "best way to encode text for research applications."
Dublin Core and releted metadata formats
Description of network resources
The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set represents a simple resource description record. It is intended to provide a foundation for electronic bibliographic description to improve structured access to information on the Internet. It aims to facilitate the description, organisation, discovery, and access of network information resources.
The subsequent Warwick Framework was designed to provide "a modular solution for combining Dublin Core with other metadata." Under this framework, a Dublin Core package might be one of many packages, including packages for terms and conditions, archiving and preservation, and content ratings.
During 1997 a set of attributes, known as the Canberra Qualifiers, was proposed to further refine the core elements. This data was updated in Dublin Core Qualifiers/Substructure in October 1997. A working group has been set up to identify how Dublin Core attributes can be employed in languges other than English. An Internet draft based on this work was published in February 1997.
Please send any corrections and/or recommendations to:
UPF Project Coordinator